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Old 08-28-2014, 03:49 AM
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Default Not the "phenomenon"

The "phenomenon" was proven false... there is no column of ions hovering in the air above a buried treasure for us to detect.
But there is something more valuable in the locations where gold and silver are buried.
This dissertation is based on the work that scientists from the Australian National University in Canberra discovered.

The soil is full of different constituents from various mineral materials to decaying organic matter. Living bacteria and other organisms are found in the earth soil at the surface and below, even at depths of several miles below the surface. This is where the story of long-time buried gold starts. Some of the microbes in the ground are able to live in conditions which are considered toxic to any living organism. These are called extremophiles because they live and thrive in these toxic conditions. Among these microbes, some of them can dissolve gold by secreting cyanide, which attacks the surface of a metallic gold object. The microbes, in turn can ingest the gold solution and carry their gold away from the gold surface as they continue on their journey through the soil. But they can also leave non-metallic gold solutions behind them in the soil, where they are free to mingle with other chemical ions. We know from the soil samples taken that the basic form of dissolved gold is cyanoaurate. And we know that most dissolved gold ions are associated with cyanide complexes which involve other metals and non-metals.

Other microbes in the ground can convert dissolved gold ions into metallic gold. The microbes do this by transferring electrons (negatively charged particles) to the dissolved metal ions. That process, in turn, converts the non-metallic dissolved gold leaving behind solid gold deposits. When electrons are transferred onto the dissolved gold it changes its state from ionic gold, Au+3, to metallic gold, which has no charge. This transfer of charge is how the bacteria gets it's energy, similar to the way we get some of our energy from the oxygen we breathe in the air. These microbes live in all parts of the ground, but will grow into colonies in places where there is more metal for them to consume. They usually eat other metals which include vanadium, manganese, iron, chromium, copper, selenium, molybdenum, tin, and others. But if there is sufficient gold in their vicinity, they eat gold too. Of particular interest is the bacteria "Bacillus cereus", which grows into colonies in large amounts where gold is buried. Some mining exploration companies look for high counts of this bacteria to indicate where there is gold under the ground. But they are not the only microbes which dissolve gold or cause it to convert back to metallic form. There are other species including fungus varieties that play a role in this process.

When gold is dissolved by a microbe, the gold may be many hundreds of meters below the surface, or may be near the surface. Yet the ions of dissolved gold slowly travel upward toward the surface of the ground. This transit toward the surface may take many thousands of years, depending on how deep the gold is buried. The methods by which the gold ions move are several. The most notable influence is the rain cycles which cause water to absorb into the soil, then slowly dry, which creates a moisture gradient that in turn causes a capillary action in the ground which tends to draw dissolved minerals upward toward the surface. At the same time there are microbes which have ingested gold ions and are also travelling through the ground. Their activity is expected to increase when the soil has a higher moisture content.

At this point, we should examine what is happening with the dissolved gold. The amount of gold which a microbe can dissolve is an extremely tiny amount, due to the tiny size of the microbes. The amount is so small that the surface of the gold that was attacked does not even appear to be damaged. The microbes are eating gold at the molecular and atomic level in some cases. And along with the gold, they also dissolve tiny amounts of copper and silver or whatever other metals are alloyed in the gold that they attack. All of these metals become ions in combination with the cyanide that corroded the metal. In the case of gold, it is converted to the basic cyanoaurate. But because of other metals present, it will usually morph into a cyanide complex with several metals and more often, non-metals. One example from the Australian gold fields where gold is found in iron ore locations will produce complexes that contain copper ferrocyanide (Cu2[Fe(CN)6]) as well as thiocyanate from the sulphur which contains the gold ore. These are only a couple of examples of many chemicals that are usually present in these complexes. As treasure hunters, we don't care about such things as sulphur in gold ore, but it is important to know that even buried treasure metals will form cyanide complexes due to all the contaminates which are in the vicinity of the buried gold, as well as the other metals alloyed with the gold. These complexes of gold, cyanide and other metals and non-metals are free to interact with other chemicals that may also be ionized below the surface of the ground.

The actual concentration of gold within these complexes is in the parts per trillion to the parts per billion range if the gold has been in the ground for a long enough time to allow bacteria to attack it, and for the resulting ions to disperse and begin rising upwards toward the surface of the ground. In laboratory test conditions small tubs of soil were seeded with gold-eating bacteria that had pure gold pellets in the bottom, and the soil was kept wet. At the end of a month they measured 30ppm of gold ions in the tubs. But this is rarely found in natural settings where the readings are usually under 10 parts per billion of gold ions. To give a frame of reference, if we take a sample of soil that weighs 1Kg and has 10 parts per billion of gold ions in it, the free gold ions would weigh 0.01 mg.
Also note, that in natural conditions, the buried metals have had thousands of years for microbes to attack the gold, and thousands of years for rain cycles and capillary action to draw ions upward in a column above the buried gold. For large ore bodies, even if they are low-grade ores, the large-scale movement of trace ions can add up to large amounts of metal moving through the ground. Some of the largest gold deposits are believed to be secondary deposits that were formed by ions moving, and bacteria aiding in converting the ions back into solid gold of unusually high purity.

Now we can examine the part of the ground where there is expected some unusual electrical activity.
Suppose a gold treasure ia buried a meter deep for 100 years. We might expect that there are gold ions leaching into the soil and rising upward in a column through the soil above it. As the ions move upward, they eventually come near the surface. Then something strange happens. At a depth of 10-30 cm (4-12 inches) the ions become neutralized into solid gold, in the form of tiny microscopic gold particles. They no longer are ions. If these tiny micro-gold particles ever reach the surface, they are lost to erosion and end up in the ocean, or can be caught into the wind where we find the same parts per per trillion of gold particles in the air as we can measure in the ocean. But take note: The ions are fully neutralized metal particles by the time they rise above the depth of 10cm in the ground. There is nothing to detect after that. This means any long range detection is accomplished by means of the gold ions which are deeper than 10cm in the ground. But how do you ions detect buried in the ground? The way Frank Reith did it was to take soil samples back to the laboratory and use expensive instruments to assay and measure the ions. But we can't do that. We want a quick indicator now, not next week when the lab finishes their work. This means we must find another way to locate this area of gold ions that is not expensive, and can be done on the spot.
What we are looking for is the treasure which is too deep to find with a metal detector, and the only thing working in our favor is if the treasure was buried long enough, it might have a column of gold ions leaching from it that follows a vertical path in the ground. So how do we detect a column of ions in the ground?
If you read back in my explanation, you will remember that when a bacteria attacks the gold surface with cyanide, it causes an electrical exchange which transfers an electron away from a gold atom at the time when it is corroded, to create a gold ion (Au+3). This is an extremely tiny electrical event that involves only one electron. However, many gold atoms are being corroded by the bacteria and by its neighbors who are competing for some of the gold to consume. The problem is this electrical activity is too deep in the ground for anyone to detect. But now let's look at the other end of that vertical ion column... it ends 10 cm below the surface of the ground. The column may be 96 cm tall in this case, but in the top 20 cm (between the depth of 10cm and 30cm), the ions begin to neutralize and become metallic gold. We have the same amount of electrical activity happening for the gold ions that happened down below at the treasure, only this time the electrons are being transferred back to the gold ions to make them solid particles. But the amount of electrical activity is the same as when the gold dissolved. The nice part is this activity is happening in a cylinder that is 20cm tall and buried only 10 cm deep -- much closer to the surface, and easier to detect.
But still, how do you detect microscopically small electrical events like this --- and from a distance?

Let's look closer at the ions neutralizing within this 20 cm tall cylinder of soil: Below 30cm, the gold ions are moving either in the bodies of microbes or travelling through the soil as free ions, attaching to various cyanide complexes in combination with other metal ions. There is not much measurable electrical activity going on here. But when they enter this 20 cm cylinder area near the surface, the ions begin to pick up extra electrons and become stable metallic gold particles. This does not happen all of a sudden. A gold ion may pick up an electron and become a particle, then revert back to an ion several times before it finally becomes a metallic gold particle permanently. Also note that a gold ion or particle may take several years travelling through the 20cm cylinder of soil before it reaches the top where it becomes permanently a gold particle. This means a single gold ion in this region may have several electrical events before it becomes a stable neutral particle. The visibility of a single gold ion thus becomes multiplied to appear as more electrical events than a single ion which only changes to a metal particle one time.

Now let's look at the gold ion population in this 20 cm active cylinder of soil:
First, take note that the ions in this active area are dispersed so they are spread out throughout the cylinder of soil soil, where they represent a large area and volume rather than a small volume such as we see in the actual buried treasure metal. This, in effect makes the detectable area appear larger than the treasure you are hunting for.
Suppose the 20cm length cylinder has a diameter which makes the soil inside weigh exactly 1kg. If the ion concentration is 1 part per billion, then we have .001 mg of gold ions in the cylinder that are in the process of becoming neutralized. This process of becoming neutralized is more complex than is immediately apparent. It is a very slow process which is very easy to upset. In fact there is an equilibrium established for ions becoming neutral, and for metal particles returning from neutral to the ion state. And there is also a gradient whereby we find more ions at the lower end of the cylinder and more metal particles at the upper end. Yet there are some metal particles reverting back to ions even at the upper end that contains mostly particles. And you can be certain that there are several species of microbes who are participating in this ionic activity, acting as a catalyst which helps to convert ions to metal, and metal to ions. The equilibrium of electronic activity in both directions within this active cylinder can be disturbed by outside influences, such as current flows and surges in the soil, magnetic disturbances, electrical storms, solar activity, man-made RF energy, mechanical disturbances, chemical changes in the ground, and a few other events which disturb the equilibrium of electrical activity. These disturbance can cause a sudden rise in the electrical activity of the ions, or can cause the electrical activity to diminish or stop. But after the disturbance stops, the equilibrium gradually returns to it's normal state within this electrically active zone. There are also many natural external influences which do not disturb the equilibrium, but help establish and maintain it. For example, there is a relatively uniform supply of cosmic rays which act as an ionizing force within the electrically active zone. Since they do not come in sudden bursts, they contribute to the steady equilibrium of the electrical activity. In fair weather, there are many other natural forces which also contribute, such as the normal telluric currents in the ground, and the magnetic field which acts more or less steadily on the polar molecules and ions at the time when they are making electron exchanges. Nuclear events involving collisions within the cylinder are also forces which don't usually upset this equilibrium. A special external force is the atmospheric electric field, which acts on this chemical/electrical activity. Measurements have shown that there is an average of 2000 amps flowing through the earth's atmosphere due to the voltage gradient in the air, which measures around 150 volts per meter altitude near the surface. This works out to about 4 pico-amps average flowing through each square meter of ground surface. This is a primary source of power that drives the electrical activity under the earth's surface as well as electrical activity in the atmosphere. The earth, being more negative than the ionosphere is leaking electrons into the atmosphere, which are replenished in locations where there are thunderstorms. This atmospheric voltage gradient and flow of electrons tends to keep the gold in the ion form, while variations in the atmospheric charge will have an influence on the equilibrium of the ionic activity. The influence from the atmospheric charge is not direct. There must be intermediary agents such as dust particles to carry the charge between the ground and aerosols or other debris in the air which can accept electrons. A good deal of this charge is transferred through the foliage - leaves on trees and other plants that collect dust and organic particles. Plants which have any moisture content are essentially at ground potential, so the atmosphere sees them as the ground, where charges can be transferred directly to the leaves or dust particles which blow onto and off of them. There are also some atmospheric conditions like dust storms that can cause the atmosphere to become very conductive, which will cause the atmospheric voltage gradient to drop much lower than normal. And, of course we know that thunderstorms can even reverse the polarity of the voltage gradient locally. But even in fair weather, the strength of the atmospheric charge does play a role in the electrical activity of the ions, and thus the ability to detect them. In any case, this transfer of charge between the ground and the atmosphere results in moving currents in the ground called telluric currents, which travel in subterranean paths at various depths. some of this current is involved in the electro-chemical activity at the treasure site, and has an influence on how this electrical activity occurs, including the alignment of polar molecules which are reacting.

In fair weather conditions (without any unusual disturbances to the equilibrium of ionic electrical activity in the active soil area), we expect that the cylinder of soil would be making a very faint steady electronic noise, considering the 0.001 mg of gold ions spread out in the cylinder. An attempt to measure this noise would not show much other than electronic noise that is hard to find behind the background noise.
We should also be aware that our treasure location is not the only anomaly where there is unusual electrical activity near the ground surface. The ground is full of buried objects, while mostly natural, treasure hunting areas are usually littered with all kinds of trash left by civilizations before us. Who knows what other metals are also buried and causing other chemical-electrical anomalies near the treasure you are looking for? And also be aware there are a number of natural sources of electrical anomalies, beginning with noise caused by telluric currents trying to flow through areas where the underlying rock formations change, and the soil conductivity and mineralization changes. Underground water, and locations where there were chemical spills also can cause anomalies. Locations where there are large deep plant roots, and even locations that were used to locate a privy in the days when there was no plumbing.
With all this competing electrical noise, we need to find a way to measure this treasure ionic activity, and to know that what we are measuring is coming from gold ions rather than some other source of noise in the area. And we need to do this from a distance. This is where the secondary effects become important. The secondary effects are the interactions that the electrical activity from the gold ions make with other forces found in the vicinity of the ion column, and more importantly, artefacts left from the electrical activity of the gold ions.

To begin, we need to use a technique to make the electrical activity more visible to electronic instruments. So far all we have is an anomaly of faint chemical-electrical activity near the surface of the ground.
It is only natural to look at radio techniques, since we are trying to set up a remote electronic detection of the unknown electrical anomaly area. But we have no carrier wave to receive, only some distant random noise that is hard to measure from the background noise. So ordinary radio techniques won't work. Now let's take a closer look at this electronic noise that comes from gold ions at the treasure location.
What kind of noise is this? It comes from electrons attaching to a gold ion, or from electrons leaving a gold atom that is changing into an ion. But this electron movement also involves a cyanide complex that includes several other chemicals besides gold. For example, sulphur, copper, silver, possibly iron and a number of other metals and non-metals. The electrical consequences amount to a lot of random noise in very small amounts. But remember, there are external forces that can upset the equilibrium of electronic noise to make it increase. Considering we have 0.001 mg of ions causing electronic noise, we could cause a disturbance which causes more of the ions to gain an electron, which would cause an increase of electrical noise at the time when the disturbance occurs. The disturbance could be from EM energy, a magnetic surge, an electrical surge in the ground, or a few other methods. However, because there is only 0.01 mg of ions, you must be careful not to make a disturbance so large that it saturates the ions and causes them to completely convert to metal particles. If that happens, then the electronic activity will stop and you won't be able to detect anything (plan to come back another day and try again). Depending on what polarity you like, you could make a disturbance that causes the metal particles to revert back to ions, and check to see how the results compare to the opposite polarity. In practice, it is difficult to choose what polarity you want the ions to move to without carrying around extra equipment to cause this kind of disturbance. The easier way is to use a method that sends the disturbance from a distance, and that usually means you are broadcasting some kind of EM wave. Already we see LRL experimenters using "stimulator coils" which are VLF transmitters that send ground-penetrating RF to the search areas. These have been reported to be effective in disturbing the electrical activity of the gold ions. There are also other methods that some experimenters use, which also involve other forms of EM waves and beams being sent to the search area. From what I have seen, not all of the pertinent methods of upsetting the equilibrium of ionic activity have been utilized yet.

We also need a technique to discriminate the gold ion area so we can recognize ionic activity from gold ions and not become confused by ionic activity from other sources we are not interested in.
Is there anything unique about the electrical noise these chemicals make when transferring electrons that would distinguish them from other noises we don't want to detect?
A whole field of science says there is. The chemical reactions from gold ions and the cyanide-metal complexes have spectrographic signatures that can be easily identified when using appropriate equipment for spectal analysis. This does not have to take the form of laboratory spectrometers, but can be a smaller version built into a treasure locator. The signatures for gold ions and all of the other compounds involved in the cyanide complex at our treasure site are readily available online to anyone who wants to look them up.

Some notes about misunderstandings from people who believe in the "phenomenon":
1. There is no cloud of ions hovering in the air above a buried treasure for you to detect.
2. The alleged "phenomenon" is not a high energy electronic activity. It is very low energy, as proved by the extremely sensitive instruments that must be used to detect it, and the tiny background electrical noise which hides the electrical activity of the ions.
3. Secondary effects can have a lot of energy, but not the electronic activity of the ions. There is not enough electrical energy in the 0.001 mg of gold ions to make any serious energy. But there are many kilowatts available from telluyric currents, lightning storms, magnetig surges and other natural forces around the tiny ionic activity. In some cases, the area of the ionic anomaly acts as an amplifier. Even though it is a small area of the ground, it can cause the atmospheric field to deform depending on what other em energies are present, and telluric currents can cause the detectable attributes of the anomaly to become more visible to instruments designed to detect it.
4. In my discussions with Dr. Bickel, he told me his gamma detector was designed to detect gamma rays that were given off from gold ions or atoms when a nuclide collided and caused a stable isotope of gold 196 to pass into his scintillator sensor. He was not intrested in cosmic rays, as he considered them to be noise. He complained about the noise in the atmosphere and said it was important to measure iostopes at only certain times of the day when the solar activity was not too severe. Also, he made many statements to say that he cannot detect gold until it was buried at least 50 years. He did not like treasure hunters, and he did not know anything about the microbe action that I described above, because it was not discovered yet. From what we now know, we can deduce that the nuclides which come from the core of the earth and collide with gold in the ground are probably colliding mostly with free gold ions in the soil, which have migrated and dispersed to a much larger area than the original gold ore that the ions came from. I would guess he was mostly mapping the locations where these migrating ion columns of gold are. But that's just my guess.

Some links:
Research document by Frank Reith: http://crcleme.org.au/NewsEvents/New...USIMMReith.pdf
Microbes manufacture gold nuggets: http://www.geotimes.org/sept06/NN_Microbes.html
Gold microbe science proof: http://aem.asm.org/content/67/7/3275.full.pdf
Pretty pictures of gold manufactured by microbes: http://aem.asm.org/content/67/7/3275.full.pdf
More pretty pictures of gold by microbes: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases...0802103513.htm
Living microbes eating gold 3 miles deep 75 degrees C: http://web.ornl.gov/info/ornlreview/rev32_3/amazing.htm
30 species of microbes help form natural gold: http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/20...15_283189.html
Dr. Bickel and his isotope detector: http://www.longrangelocators.com/for...ad.php?t=11342
Gamma spectra of stable gold isotope: http://www.radiochemistry.org/period.../pdf/au196.pdf


This is where my dissertation ends.
If you were expecting a circuit diagram, too bad. Go back and read the text and get some real facts that you can use to design your own circuits.
In any case, hope this post helped.

Best Wishes,
J_P
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